UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Download Civil Services Preliminary Exam Pattern, Selection process


UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Download Civil Services Examination Pattern, Selection Process

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022:

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has released the Civil Services Syllabus 2022 here. Candidates who had applied for the Civil Services examination can check the latest syllabus, examination pattern, and question papers from the Official website and also from n the below section contenders will get a subject-wise Syllabus along with an Exam Pattern. So with the to the given Civil Services Syllabus, all the applicants must start their preparation because there is enormous competition for SSC Jobs 2022.

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) recruits Civil Service Examination in a three-stage selection procedure. Candidates are selected based on their performance in the Preliminary examination. Qualified candidates in the Preliminary Examination are only eligible to appear in the Main examination. Shortlisted candidates in both examinations are only eligible to appear for final round of interview/ Certificate verification process.

Click Here for UPSC Civil Services Recruitment 2022

UPSC Civil Services Examination 2022 Syllabus Details – Overview

Organization Union Public Service Commission
Exam Name Civil Services Examination 2022
No. of  vacancies 861 Posts
Job Location All over India
Job Type Central Government
Mode of Application Online
Category Syllabus
Exam Date 05-06-2022
Application Fee Rs.100/-
Official Website

UPSC Civil Services Exam Syllabus 2022

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 and Exam Pattern for Aptitude Test had given here. Applied Candidates of Union Public Service Commission Recruitment can have a look at this article to get and download the Latest Required UPSC Civil Services Exam Syllabus along with Exam Pattern. Here regularly we are updating all Latest Government Jobs Exam Syllabus PDF along with Exam Pattern. Before going to attend for you should know the Syllabus and Exam Pattern for UPSC Civil Services Examination.

UPSC Civil Services 2022 Notification Details

Union Public Service commission has released the Civil Services examination. Nowadays there is heavy competition for any Government Job especially Civil Services. For all UPSC Civil Services 2022  Posts, The Selection Procedure includes a written test (Preliminary Examination, Main Examination). Here we are providing the Syllabus and Old Question Papers for easy preparation. All the Best!

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus & Exam Pattern 2022

For those who have applied for UPSC Civil Services recruitment may now start preparing for the Exam because Competitive Exams need more concentration and more practice. Exam Pattern and Syllabus are very important for Preparation of UPSC Civil Services examination.

First stage of the Civil Services examination is Preliminary Examination. Preliminary examination is a screening test. Screening test is conducted to shortlist the candidates for main examination. Preliminary examination consists of two papers. Both papers carries a maximum of 400 marks.

Name of the Organization Union Public Service Commission
Number of Papers 2 Compulsory Papers
Type of Questions Objective type questions
Maximum number of marks 400
Duration  2 hours
Negative marking 1/3 of the marks will be deducted
Medium of the Examination Bilingual
Official Website

General Studies Paper-I Syllabus

  • Current events of National & International importance.
  • History of India & Indian National Movement.
  • Indian & World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India & the World.
  • Indian Polity & Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic & Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity & climate change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.

General Studies Paper-II Syllabus

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning & analytical ability.
  • Decision making & problem solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (numbers & their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

General Studies Paper-II of IAS Exam is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Pattern & Syllabus

Civil Services Main Examination consists of written examination and interview (personality test).

Qualifying Papers Marks
Paper-A One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution 300
Paper-B English 300
Papers to be counted for merit
Paper-I Essay 250
Paper-II General Studies-I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) 250
Paper-III General Studies-II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations) 250
Paper-IV Genera Studies-III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management) 250
Paper-V General Studies-IV (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 250
Paper-VI Optional Subject – Paper 1 250
Paper-VII Optional Subject – Paper 2 250
Sub Total (Written Test) 1750
Personality Test 275
Grand Total 2025

Important Points to be noted:

  • The papers on Indian languages and English (Paper A and paper B) will be of qualifying nature and the marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.
  • The papers on Indian languages and English (Paper A and paper B) will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard.
  • The papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subject of only such candidates will be taken cognizance who attain 25% marks in ‘Indian Language’ and 25% in ‘English’ as minimum qualifying standards in these qualifying papers.
  • Marks obtained by the candidates for the Paper I-VII only will be counted for merit ranking.
  • The question papers for the main examination will be of conventional (essay) type and each paper will be of 3 hour duration.
  • Candidates will have the option to answer all the question papers, except the Qualifying Language Papers, Paper-A and Paper-B, in any one of the languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India or in English.
  • The question papers (other than the literature of language papers) will be set in Hindi and English only.
  • Compensatory time of twenty minutes per hour shall be permitted for the Blind candidates and the candidates with locomotor disability and cerebral palsy where dominant (writing) extremity is affected to the extent of slowing the performance of function (minimum of 40% impairment) in both the Civil Services (Preliminary) as well as in the Civil Services (Main) Examination.

Syllabus of UPSC Main Examination Papers

Qualifying Papers on Indian Languages and English

English Language:

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Precis Writing.
  • Usage and Vocabulary.
  • Short Essays.

Indian Languages:

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Precis Writing.
  • Usage and Vocabulary.
  • Short Essays.
  • Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.

Paper-I: Essay

Candidates must be required to write essays on multiple topics.

Paper-II: General Studies-I

  • Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.
  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Paper-III: General Studies-II

  • Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.
  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora – their structure, mandate.

Paper-IV: General Studies-III

  • Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System-objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Paper-V: General Studies-IV

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society.

Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects.

The following broad areas will be covered:

(i) Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

(ii) Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

(iii) Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

(iv) Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

(v) Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

(vi) Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

(vii) Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

(viii) Case Studies on above issues.

Paper- VI & VII

Optional Subject Papers I & II.

A candidate may opt for any one Optional Subject from the following:

(i) Agriculture

(ii) Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

(iii) Anthropology

(iv) Botany

(v) Chemistry

(vi) Civil Engineering

(vii) Commerce and Accountancy

(viii) Economics

(ix) Electrical Engineering

(x) Geography

(xi) Geology

(xii) History

(xiii) Law

(xiv) Management

(xv) Mathematics

(xvi) Mechanical Engineering

(xvii) Medical Science

(xviii) Philosophy

(xix) Physics

(xx) Political Science and International Relations

(xxi) Psychology

(xxii) Public Administration

(xxiii) Sociology

(xxiv) Statistics

(xxv) Zoology

(xxvi) Literature of any one of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English.

Some Subjects Syllabus:

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Botany:

Paper-I Syllabus:

1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology :

Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.
Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of
infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2. Cryptogams :

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

3. Phanerogams :

Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms.
Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction.
General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils
and their study techniques.

Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.
Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and
chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of
angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae,
Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae,
Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth;
Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its
development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes; Applications of
palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

4. Plant Resource Development :

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis :

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

Paper-II Syllabus:

1. Cell Biology :

Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structuralvariations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :

Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:

Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in
plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and
biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques—
probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of
variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions
(normal, binomial and Poisson). Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry :

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis— photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)— electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography :

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession.
Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoreme-diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation
and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its
conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual
Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and
climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Chemistry

Paper I Syllabus:

1. Atomic Structure :

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one- dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

2. Chemical bonding :

Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond
and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond
theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding H2
+, H2 He2 + to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN–, Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

3. Solid state :

Crystal systems; Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell; Bragg’s law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2; stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.

4. The gaseous state and Transport Phenomenon :

Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases; Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.

5. Liquid State :

Kelvin equation; Surface tension and surface enercy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension
and capillary action.

6. Thermodynamics :
Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy-reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cv, and ; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics

7. Phase equilibrium and solutions:

Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply

Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary
systems, partially miscible liquids—upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar
quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their

8. Electrochemistry :

Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its
applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density;
overpotential; electroanalytical techniques : amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their use.

9. Chemical kinetics:

Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; Branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories

10. Photochemistry:

Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between
hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields

11. Surface phenomena and catalysis:

Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents; Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts

12. Bio-inorganic chemistry:
Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferrodoxins

13. Coordination chemistry:

(i) Bonding in transition of metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and elctronic spectra of metal complexes.
(ii) Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planar complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
(iii) EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(iv) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
14. Main Group Chemistry:
Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen compounds; Sulphur—nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.
15. General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Element:
Lanthanides and actinides: separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction


1. Delocalised covalent bonding:

Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.

2. (i) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of
mechanisms or organic reactions : isotopies, mathod cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping,
stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
(ii) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carboniumions
and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.
(iii) Substitution reactions :—SN 1, SN 2, and SN i, mechanisms ; neighbouring group
participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including
heterocyclic compounds—pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.
(iv) Elimination reactions :—E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions—
Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination—acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope
(v) Addition reactions :—Electrophilic addition to C=C and C C; nucleophilic addition to
C=O, C N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(vi) Reactions and Rearrangements :—(a) Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, BaeyerVilliger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner—Meerwein rearrangements.
(b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting,
Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin
condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer,
Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

3. Pericyclic reactions :—Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—electrocyclic
reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5], FMO

4. (i) Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymerspolyethylene, polystyrene,
polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.
(ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.

5. Synthetic Uses of Reagents:
OsO4, HlO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAIH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi, MCPBA.

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Electrical Engineering 


1. Circuits—Theory :

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh
analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits;
sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port

2. Signals and Systems :

Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems;
convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and
differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.
Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory :

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and
refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

4. Analog Electronics :
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET

Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror;
Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of
amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for
oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits.
Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics :

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL,
MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.
Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers,
multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic
implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion :

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC
machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers :
principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction
machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance analysis; speed control

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :

Semi-conductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static
characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters :
fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters;
Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable speed drives.

8. Analog Communication :

Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages;
probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal
transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSBSC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals;
narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation
system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked
loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers


1. Control Systems :

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems;
principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain and
transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polor plots,
Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable
representation and analysis of control systems.

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers :
PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts,
memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

3. Measurement and Instrumentation:
Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance,
inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic
measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrumanalyser, distoration-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control :
Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and
reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices;
load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components,
analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability : swing curves and equal
area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

5. Power System Protection :
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit
brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric
relays and application of DSP to protection.

6. Digital Communication :
Pulse code modulation (PCM), defferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM),
Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK,
PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolation codes.
Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Geology

Paper I

1. General Geology :

The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes—causes
and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of zone of India; Island arcs,
trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing :

Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and
drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and
lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil
engineering; hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent.
Aerial photographs and their interpretation—merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic
spectrum. Orbiting Satellites and Sensor Systems. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellite data
products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global
Positioning System (GPS)—its applications.

3. Structural Geology :

Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid
and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed
rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and
mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Timerelationship between crystallization and deformation.

4. Paleontology :
Species—definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of
fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration,
paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae.
Siwalik fauna.

Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.

5. Indian Stratigraphy :
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostrati-graphic, biostratigraphic, chrono-stratigraphic
and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian
rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with
reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems—Cambrian/ Precambrian,
Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions,
paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian sub-continent in the geological past. Tectonic
framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology :
Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs;
Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of
aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of
wells. Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and
management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material;
Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures


1. Mineralogy :
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of
crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification
of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate,
sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.
Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double
refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology :
Generation and crystallisation of magmas. Crystallisation of albite—anorthite, diopside—anorthite
and diopside—wollastonite—silica systems. Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentiation and
assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. Petrography and
petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline
rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule. Facies of regional
and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks.
Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages. Retrograde
metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites. Granulite terrains of India.

3. Sedimenary Petrology :
Sedimentas and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and
non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and
provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance.
Sedimentary basins of India.

4. Economic Geology :
Ore, ore mineral and gangue, tenor of ore. Classification of ore deposits; Processes of formation of
mineral deposits; Controls of ore localisation; Ore texures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and
provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead,
zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and
petroleum in India, National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine
mineral resources and Law of Sea.

5. Mining Geology :
Methods of prospecting—geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of
sampling. Estimation of reserves of ore; Methods of exploration and mining-metallic ores, industrial
minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology :
Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and
composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isomorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.
Natural hazards—floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation;
Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers,
dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution. Environment
protection—legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Assamese




(a) History of the origin and development of the Assamese Language —its position among the IndoAryan language—periods in its history.
(b) Development of Assamese prose.
(c) Vowels and consonants of the Assamese Language—Rules of phonetic changes with stress on
Assamese coming down from Old Indo-Aryan.
(d) Assamese vocabulary—and its sources.
(e) Morphology of the language—conjugation—enclitic definitives and pleonastic suffixes.
(f) Dilectical divergences—the Standard colloquial and the Kamrupi dialect in particular.
(g) Assamese script—its evolution through the ages till 19th century A.D.


(a) Principles of literary criticism up to New criticism.
(b) Different literary genres.
(c) Development of literary forms in Assamese.
(d) Development of literary criticism in Assamese.
(e) Periods of the literary history of Assam from the earliest beginnings, i.e. from the period of the
charyyageeta with their socio-cultural background : the proto Assamese Pre-Sankaradeva—
Sankaradeva—Post-Sankaradeva—Modern period (from the coming of the Britishers)—PostIndependence period. Special emphasis is to be given on the Vaisnavite period, the gonaki and the
post-independence periods.

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Kashmiri


1. Genealogical relationship of the Kashmiri language: various theories.
2. Areas of occurence and dialects (geographical/social)
3. Phonology and grammar:
i. Vowel and consonant system;
ii. Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections;
iii. Verbs: various types and tenses.
4. Syntactic structure:
i. Simple, active and declarative statements;
ii. Coordination;
iii. Relativisation.


1. Kashmiri literature in the 14th century (Socio-cultural and intellectual background with special
reference to Lal Dyad and Sheikhul Alam).
2. Nineteenth century Kashmiri literature (development of various genres : vatsun; ghazal and
3. Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century (with special reference to Mahjoor and
Azad; various literary influences).
4. Modern Kashmiri literature (with special reference to the development of the short story, drama,
novel and nazm).



1. Intensive study of Kashmiri poetry up to the nineteenth century :
(i) Lal Dyad,
(ii) Sheikhul Aalam
(iii) Habba Khatoon
2. Kashmiri poetry : 19th Century
(i) Mahmood Gami (Vatsans)
(ii) Maqbool shah (Gulrez)
(iii) Rasool Mir (Ghazals)
(iv) Abdul Ahad Nadim (N’at)
(v) Krishanjoo Razdan (Shiv Lagun)
(vi) Sufi Poets (Test in Sanglaab, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)
3. Twentieth Century Kashmiri poetry (text in Azich Kashir Shairi, published by the Deptt. of
Kashmiri, University of Kashmir).
4. Literary criticism and research work : development and various trends.


1. An analytical study of the short story in Kashmiri.
(i) Afsana Majmu’a, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.
(ii) Kashur Afsana Az, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
(iii) Hamasar Kashur Afsana, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
The following short story writers only : Akhtar Mohi-ud Din, Kamil, Hari Krishan Kaul, Hraday
Kaul Bharti, Bansi Nirdosh, Gulshan Majid.
2. Novel in Kashmiri :
(i) Mujrim by G. N. Gowhar
(ii) Marun—Ivan Ilyichun, (Kashmiri version of Tolstoy’s) The Death of Ivan Ilyich (published by
Kashmiri Deptt.)
3. Drama in Kashmiri :
(i) Natuk Kariv Band by Hari Krishan Kaul
(ii) Qk Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
(iii) Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar, published by the Sahitya Akademi.
4. Kashmiri Folk Literature :
(i) Kashur Luki Theatre by Mohammad Subhan Bhagat,published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri,
University of Kashmir.
(ii) Kashiry Luki Beeth (all volumes) published by the J&K Cultural Akademy.

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 – Maithili


History of Maithili Language
1. Place of Maithili in Indo-European Language family.
2. Origin and development of Maithili language. (Sanskrit, Prakrit, Avhatt, Maithili)
3. Periodic division of Maithili Language. (Beginning, Middle era, Modern era).
4. Maithili and its different dialects.
5. Relationship between Maithili and other Eastern languages (Bengali, Asamese, Oriya)
6. Origin and Development of Tirhuta Script.
7. Pronouns and Verbs in Maithili Language


History of Maithili Literature
1. Background of Maithili Literature (Religious, Economic, Social, Cultural).
2. Periodic division of Maithili literature.
3. Pre-Vidyapati Literature.
4. Vidyapati and his tradition.
5. Medieval Maithili Drama (Kirtaniya Natak, Ankia Nat, Maithili dramas written in Nepal).
6. Maithili Folk Literature (Folk Tales, Folk Drama, Folk Stories, Folk Songs).
7. Development of different literary forms in modern era :
(a) Prabandh-kavya
(b) Muktak-kavya
(c) Novel
(d) Short Story
(e) Drama
(f) Essay
(g) Criticism
(h) Memoirs
(i) Translation
8. Development of Maithili Magazines and Journals.


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