Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana:
About the Scheme:
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) has the vision of assured irrigation access; “Har Khet Ko Pani” and improving on-farm water use efficiency; “More Crop Per Drop” in a focused manner with an “Integrated Value Chain” approach encompassing source creation, distribution, management, field application, and extension activities.
Duration of the Scheme:
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana’s duration is for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20) with a financial outlay of Rs.50,000 crores.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP), Har Khet ko Paani (HKKP), and Watershed Development components have been approved for continuation during the period 2021-26 with a financial outlay of Rs. 93,068 crore, including Rs.37,454 crore central assistance to States.
Objectives of the Scheme:
- Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level
- Enhance the physical access to water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet Ko Pani)
- Integration of water source, distribution, and its efficient use, to make the best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices
- Improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent
- Enhance the adoption of precision irrigation and other water-saving technologies (More crop per drop)
- Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices
- Ensure the integrated development of rain-fed areas using the watershed approach towards soil and water conservation, regeneration of groundwater, arresting runoff, providing livelihood options, and other NRM activities
- Promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management, and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries
- Attract greater private investments in irrigation
Instead of incremental budgeting, PMKSY will adopt a dynamic annual fund allocation methodology that mandates States to allocate more funds to irrigation sectors for becoming eligible to access PMKSY funds. For this purpose:
A-State will become eligible to access the PMKSY fund only if it has prepared the District Irrigation Plans (DIP) and State Irrigation Plan (SIP), except for the initial year, and the expenditure on water resource development for the agriculture sector in the year under consideration is not less than baseline expenditure. The baseline expenditure will be the average of expenditure in the irrigation sector irrespective of state departments (i.e. creation of water source, distribution, management and application from State plan schemes) in State Plan three years prior to the year under consideration.
States will be given additional weightage for levying charges on water and electricity for irrigation purposes, so as to ensure the sustainability of the program.
Inter-State allocation of PMKSY fund will be decided based on
(i) share of the percentage of unirrigated area in the State vis-à-vis National average including the prominence of areas classified under Desert Development Programme (DDP) and Drought Prone Area Development Programme (DPAP) and
(ii) increase in percentage share of expenditure on water resource development for the agriculture sector in State Plan expenditure in the previous year over three years prior to it
(iii)improvement in irrigation efficiency in the state
Components & Convergence:
PMKSY envisages the convergence of water sector activities in a focused manner. The Scheme components are organized in such a manner that an integrated irrigation supply chain is created at the cluster level and components of the chain draw synergies from each other. For optimal augmentation of resources, convergence is desired with other schemes such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), Member of Parliament Local Area Development (MPLAD), Member of Legislative Assembly Local Areas Development (MLALAD) and other Local body funds. The four components of PMKSY are
- Per Drop More Crop
- Integrated Watershed Management Programme
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
- Har khet ko pani
About AIBP Programme:
The objective of AIBP component of PMKSY is to expedite the implementation of ongoing major and medium irrigation projects, including national projects
To focus on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects
Har khet ko pani:
- Irrigation capacities created under AIBP must translate into utilization through Command Area Development works and the creation of new water sources. Focusing on expanding the cultivable area under assured irrigation, the “Har Khet Ko Pani” component is funded through the ongoing Command Area Development & Water Management (CADWM) program. The component is implemented by the States through the Department that implements AIBP, in general.
- Creation of new water sources through Minor Irrigation (both surface and groundwater)
Repair, restoration, and renovation of water bodies; strengthening carrying capacity of traditional water sources, construction of rainwater harvesting structures (Jal Sanchay);
Command area development, strengthening, and creation of distribution network from source to the farm; Improvement in water management and distribution system for water bodies to take advantage of the available source which is not tapped to its fullest capacity (deriving benefits from low hanging fruits).
- At least 10% of the command area is to be covered under micro/precision irrigation.
Diversion of water from the source of the different locations where it is plenty to nearby water-scarce areas, lift irrigation from water bodies/rivers at lower elevation to supplement requirements beyond IWMP and MGNREGS irrespective of irrigation command. Creation and rejuvenation of traditional water storage systems like Jal Mandir (Gujarat); Khatri, Kuhl (H.P.); Zabo (Nagaland); Eri, Ooranis (T.N.); Dongs (Assam); Katas, Bandhas (Odisha and M.P.) etc. at feasible locations.
Per Drop More Crop:
Per Drop More Crop, an integral component of PMKSY focuses on maximizing water use efficiency at the farm level. Major activities under Per Drop More Crop can be categorized into “Micro Irrigation” including Drip, Sprinkler, Micro Sprinklers, etc, and “Supplementary Water Management Activities (SWMA)/ Other Interventions”. SWMA activities include farm-level secondary storage structures such as individual or community water storage, Drought proofing structures such as water harvesting or recharge or groundwater development, renovation of existing water bodies, enhancing water conveyance efficiency and water-lifting devices. The pattern of assistance to beneficiaries under the component will be 55% for small and marginal farmers and 45% for other farmers. The funding pattern is 60% from the Central Government and 40% from the State. For North East and the Himalayan States, the cost-share is 90: 10 from the Centre and State. For UTs, the program is funded 100% by the Central Government.
- Program management, preparation of State/District Irrigation Plan, approval of annual action plan, Monitoring, etc.
- Promoting efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain guns in the farm (Jal Sinchan);
- Topping up of input cost particularly under civil construction beyond the permissible limit (40%), under MGNREGS for activities like lining inlet, outlet, silt traps, distribution system, etc.
- Construction of micro irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities including tube wells and dug wells (in areas where groundwater is available and not under semi-critical/critical /over the exploited category of development) which are not supported under PMKSY (WR), PMKSY (Watershed) and MGNREGS.
- Secondary storage structures at the tail end of the canal system to store water when available in abundance (rainy season) or from perennial sources like streams for use during dry periods through effective on-farm water management;
- Water lifting devices like diesel/ electric/ solar pump sets including water carriage pipes.
- Extension activities for the promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures including cropping alignment to maximize the use of available water including rainfall and minimize irrigation requirements (Jal sarankchan);
- Capacity building, training for encouraging potential use of water sources through technological, agronomic, and management practices including community irrigation.
- Awareness campaign on water-saving technologies, practices, programs, etc.,
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
IWMP is being implemented as per Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects 2008, revised in 2011-12. Unit cost for watershed development is Rs. 12,000 per ha in plains and Rs. 15,000 per ha in difficult/ hilly areas. The funding pattern is 60% from the Central Government and 40% from the State Government.
- Water harvesting structures on individual lands of vulnerable sections, creation of new irrigation sources, up-gradation/desilting of traditional water bodies, water conservation works, etc.
- Supplementing soil and water conservation works in the identified backward rainfed blocks by overlaying the plans with that of watershed projects for development to full potential
- Desiltation of canal & distribution system, Deepening, and desiltation of existing water bodies, strengthening of bunds/embankments, etc.
- Restoring the potential of traditional water storage systems like Jal Mandir; Khatri, Kuhl, Zabo, Ooranis ,Dongs, Katas, Bandhas, etc. through disiltation and deepening activities
The framework of PMKSY:
National Level Implementation:
PMKSY Mission Directorate is established in the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD & GR) for mission mode implementation of the program. National Steering Committee (NSC) and National Executive Committee (NEC) are the key committees functioning at the National level, that oversee the implementation of the program, allocate resources, undertake monitoring and performance assessment etc. At the execution level, AIBP and CADWM are implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD & GR), Per Drop More Crop and IWMP are administered by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC) and Department of Land Resources (DoLR) respectively. National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA) supports DoLR in implementation of IWMP.
The State Department of Agriculture is the nodal department for implementation of PMKSY. However, the implementing departments for the four components are decided by the respective program Ministry / Department. State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC) is constituted under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary of the State to sanction projects and activities as recommended by the Inter-Departmental Working Group (IDWG) chaired by the Agricultural Production Commissioner / Development Commissioner.
District level Implementation:
At district level, District Level Implementation Committee (DLIC) oversees the implementation of PMKSY. DLIC is chaired by the District Collector / Magistrate/ CEO of Zilla Parishad/ Project Director (PD), District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). Members of DLIC include the Joint Director / Deputy Director of line departments (Agriculture/ Rural Development) in the district, progressive farmers, representatives from Micro Irrigation Industry and leading NGOs. Project Director (PD), Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) is the Member Secretary of DLIC
Annual Action plan of PMKSY:
Annual Action Plan (AAP) flows from DIP and is prepared at the district level and submitted to the State Nodal Agency for approval by the State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC). AAP includes component-wise irrigation potential targeted during the upcoming Financial Year (FY) along with the financial resources required. AAP should strategically target and prioritize blocks/ mandals/ tehsils that are water-stressed and critically water-scarce, based on the Central Ground Water Board Statistics. Such an intensive and focused approach in the preparation of AAP would be the responsibility of the DLIC. Once the AAPs are approved at the State level, they are submitted for release of funds by the respective Ministries / Departments (MoWR, DAC & FW & DoLR) implementing the PMKSY components.
Targets of the Programme:
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
- Total additional irrigation potential creation targeted during 2021-26 under AIBP is 13.88 lakh hectares. Apart from focused completion of 60 ongoing projects including their 30.23 lakh hectare command area development, additional projects to also be taken up. The inclusion criteria have been relaxed for projects in tribal and drought-prone areas.
- Central funding of 90% of the water components for two national projects, namely the Renukaji Dam Project (Himachal Pradesh) and the Lakhwar Multipurpose Project (Uttarakhand) has been provisioned. The two projects would provide the beginning of storage in the Yamuna basin benefitting six states of the upper Yamuna basin, augmenting water supply to Delhi as well Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, UP, Haryana, and Rajasthan and a major step towards rejuvenation of Yamuna.
Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP)
- Under HKKP, surface minor irrigation and repair-renovation-restoration of water bodies component of PMKSY is targeted to provide additional 4.5 lakh hectare irrigation.
- In view of the importance of rejuvenation of water bodies, a paradigm shift in the funding of their rejuvenation in both urban and rural areas, with significant expansion of their inclusion criteria, and enhancement of central assistance from 25% to 60% in the general area.
- The Ground Water component of HKKP, approved provisionally for 2021-22, targets the creation of irrigation potential of 1.52 lakh hectares.
- Completion of sanctioned projects covering 49.5 lakh hectares of rainfed/ degraded lands to bring an additional 2.5 lakh hectares under protective irrigation,
- A specific provision for the development of spring sheds has been included in the program